Closely following the publication of Charles Darwin's Descent of Man in 1871, a new racist movement (called a "science" by its proponents) was born. It was popularly called Eugenics, and its prophet was Francis Galton, an English Victorian polymath and a cousin of Darwin's.
The objective of Eugenics was racial purity and racial improvement, purity and improvement as defined by a handful men and women. The word "Eugenics" was coined by Galton. After Thomas Malthus, it is appropriate to position Francis Galton as the second towering figure in the dark history of population control.
The objective of Galton's Eugenics, which later came to be known as Positive Eugenics, was stated by him in his Essays in Eugenics (Galton, 1909), thus:
The aim of Eugenics is to bring as many influences as can be reasonably employed, to cause the useful classes in the community to contribute more than their proportion to the next generation.Thus, Galton's idea was to make the "useful classes", by which term he meant those classes who were racially superior according to him, to reproduce more and faster than the "useless classes". Galton had no hesitation in concluding that inferior races must be "elbowed out" by the superior races. In his Enquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (Galton, 1907), Galton stated quite unequivocally that it is reasonable to remove "inferior races" from the planet:
There exists a sentiment, for the most part quite unreasonable, against the gradual extinction of an inferior race. It rests on some confusion between the race and the individual, as if the destruction of a race was equivalent to the destruction of a large number of men. It is nothing of the kind when the process of extinction works silently and slowly through the earlier marriage of members of the superior race, through their greater vitality under equal stress, through their better chances of getting a livelihood, or through their prepotency in mixed marriages. That the members of an inferior class should dislike being elbowed out of the way is another matter; but it may be somewhat brutally argued that whenever two individuals struggle for a single place, one must yield, and that there will be no more unhappiness on the whole, if the inferior yield to the superior than conversely, whereas the world will be permanently enriched by the success of the superior.It can be said that Galton laid the foundation of the science of silently extinguishing "inferior races" by simply increasing the fertility of the "superior race". According to Galton, therefore, everything is in order if Europeans, whom Galton considered as a superior race, came in to America and silently out-bred and elbowed-out native Indians. As per Galton, that would be the best thing to happen to America, since it will finally have a superior race inhabiting it.
Galton also openly expressed a desire for European colonization of the world, Europeans being a superior race in his mind. He argued that the subject of over-population must be taken up with serious consideration owing to the filling up of spare places of the earth with non-Europeans (Galton, 1907):
Over-population and its attendant miseries may not improbably become a more serious subject of consideration than it ever yet has been, owing to improved sanatation and consequent diminution of the mortality of children, and to the filling up of the spare places of the earth which are still void and able to receive the overflow of Europe.Thus, we see in Francis Galton's deliberations, the seed of global population control, which is aimed at "reducing misery" all over the world by slowly extinguishing "unwanted people" and replacing them with "superior races". Galton even went to the extent of saying that if the inferior race spoke the same language, it's even more easier to extinguish it (Galton, 1907):
I think it could be easily shown that when the differences between the races is not so great as to divide them into obviously different classes, and where their language, education, and general interests are the same, the substitution may take place gradually without any unhappiness.Now, I welcome the reader to ask himself/herself how easy it could be for a unitary state, such as India, to replace what it considers as an inferior race with a superior race, even if the word race is never mentioned. How easy could it be if both the inferior and the superior races were made to feel so united that their elite representatives looked at racial, linguistic, cultural and historical differences with shame?
While there is no proof that India's population control programme was racist in intent, it has certainly turned racist in consequence: the Dravidians are being slowly depopulated while the Aryans are being kept relatively intact and even funded and assisted by the state to migrate southwards. What other picture can the paintbrush of greed and hatred paint?
- Galton, 1907: Enquiries into Human Faculty and its Development, Project Gutenberg eBook.
- Galton, 1909: Essays in Eugenics, London, The Eugenics Education Society
To be continued.